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From Mohism's Book of Mozi: Book 7,Will of Heaven      
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Today’s Between Master and Disciples – “From Mohism’s Book of Mozi: Book 7 – Will of Heaven” – will be presented in Chinese with subtitles in Arabic, Aulacese (Vietnamese), Bulgarian, Chinese, Czech-Slovak, English, French, German, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Mongolian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Spanish and Thai.

Mozi or Mo Tzu was a Chinese philosopher who lived around 460 BCE to 391. He was a pacifist who traveled from one region to another to try to convince rulers from their plans of conquest. Mo Tzu’s teachings encompass self-reflection to attain true self knowledge, universal love and enlightened self-interest in social relations. He advocated self-restraint in which a person would indulge in neither material nor spiritual extravagance. His philosophy encompassed the concept that one must do actions which brought the most benefit for the general welfare of all. We now present an excerpt of Mo Tzu’s teachings, “Will of Heaven,” from the book Mozi.

Thank you for your happy company for today’s episode of Between Master and Disciples here on Supreme Master Television. Join us again next Wednesday for part 2 of Mo Tzu’s teachings, “Will of Heaven.”

Up next is Planet Earth: Our Loving Home right after Noteworthy News. May Heaven’s blessing be bountiful in your daily life.

Thank you for your gentle presence for today’s episode of Between Master and Disciples. Join us again next Wednesday for part 3 of “Will of Heaven,” excerpted from Mo Tzu’s teachings. Planet Earth: Our Loving Home is coming up next after Noteworthy News. Please stay tuned to Supreme Master Television. May your noble dreams be realized and your life be overflowed with the boundless love from Heaven.

You have been watching Between Master and Disciples here on Supreme Master Television. Join us again next Wednesday for the conclusion of “Will of Heaven.” Up next is Planet Earth: Our Loving Home, right after Noteworthy News. Farewell and God bless.

Thank you for your happy company for today’s episode of Between Master and Disciples here on Supreme Master Television. Join us again next Wednesday for part 2 of Mo Tzu’s teachings, “Will of Heaven.”

Up next is Planet Earth: Our Loving Home right after Noteworthy News. May Heaven’s blessing be bountiful in your daily life.

Thank you for your gentle presence for today’s episode of Between Master and Disciples. Join us again next Wednesday for part 3 of “Will of Heaven,”

excerpted from Mo Tzu’s teachings. Planet Earth: Our Loving Home is coming up next after Noteworthy News. Please stay tuned to Supreme Master Television. May your noble dreams be realized and your life be overflowed with the boundless love from Heaven.

You have been watching Between Master and Disciples here on Supreme Master Television. Join us again next Wednesday for the conclusion of “Will of Heaven.” Up next is Planet Earth: Our Loving Home, right after Noteworthy News. Farewell and God bless.

Thank you for your happy company for today’s episode of Between Master and Disciples here on Supreme Master Television. Up next is Planet Earth: Our Loving Home, right after Noteworthy News. May Heaven’s blessing be bountiful in your daily life.

Thank you for your happy company for today’s episode of Between Master and Disciples here on Supreme Master Television. Up next is Planet Earth: Our Loving Home, right after Noteworthy News. May Heaven’s blessing be bountiful in your daily life.
Will of Heaven I Mozi said: The gentlemen of the world all understand only trifles but not things of importance. How do we know? We know this from one's conduct in the family. If one should offend the patriarch of the family, there are still the homes of the neighbors in which to seek shelter. Yet parents, brothers, and friends all keep on reminding one to be obedient and careful. For, how can one offend the patriarch and stay in the family? Not only is this true about conduct in the family, but also in the state. If one should offend the lord of the state there are still the neighboring states whither he may flee. Yet parents, brothers, and friends all keep on reminding one to be obedient and careful.

For, how can one offend the lord of the state and stay in it? From these there are yet shelters to flee to, yet there are such constant counsels. Should there not be more counsels in a case from which there is nowhere to flee? As the saying goes: "Sinning in broad daylight, whither can one flee?" Really there is nowhere to flee. For, Heaven clearly discerns it even if it be in the woods, valleys, or solitary caves where there is no man. But, contrary to our expectation, regarding Heaven, the gentlemen of the world do not understand mutually to give counsel.

This is how we know the gentlemen in the world understand only trifles and not things of importance. Now, what does Heaven desire and what does it abominate? Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness. Therefore, in leading the people in the world to engage in doing righteousness I should be doing what Heaven desires. When I do what Heaven desires, Heaven will also do what I desire. Now, what do I desire and what do I abominate? I desire blessings and emoluments, and abominate calamities and misfortunes.

When I do not do what Heaven desires, neither will Heaven do what I desire. Then I should be leading the people into calamities and misfortunes. But how do we know Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness? For, with righteousness the world lives and without it the world dies; with it the world becomes rich and without it the world becomes poor; with it the world becomes orderly and without it the world becomes chaotic. And if Heaven likes to have the world live and dislikes to have it die, likes to have it rich and dislikes to have it poor, and likes to have it orderly and dislikes to have it disorderly. Therefore, we know Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness.

Moreover, righteousness is the standard. A standard is not to be given by the subordinates to the superior but by the superior to the subordinates. Therefore, while the common people should spare no pains at work they may not make the standard at will. There are the scholars to give them the standard. While the scholars should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will. There are the ministers and secretaries to give them the standard. While the ministers and secretaries should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will. There are the high duke and feudal lords to give them the standard. While the high duke and the feudal lords should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will.

There is the emperor to give them the standard. The emperor may not make the standard at will either. There is Heaven to give him the standard. That the emperor gives the standard to the high dukes, to the feudal lords, to the scholars, and to the common people, the gentlemen in the world clearly understand. But that Heaven gives the standard to the emperor, the people do not know well. Therefore, the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, desiring to make it clear to the people that Heaven gives the standard to the emperor and invoked Heaven's blessing.

But I have not yet heard of Heaven invoking the emperor for blessing. So I know Heaven gives the standard to the emperor. The emperor is the most honorable of the world and the richest of the world. So, the honored and the rich cannot but obey the will of Heaven. He who obeys the will of Heaven, loving universally and benefiting others, will obtain rewards. He who opposes the will of Heaven, by being partial and unfriendly and harming others, will incur punishment.

Now, who were those that obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained rewards, and who were those that opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment? Mozi said: The ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, were those that obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward. And the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, were those that opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment. How did Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu obtain their reward? Mozi said: In the highest sphere they revered Heaven, in the middle sphere they worshipped the spirits, and in the lower sphere they loved the people.

Thereupon the will of Heaven proclaimed: "All those whom I love these love also, and all those whom I benefit these benefit also. Their love to men is all-embracing and their benefit to men is most substantial." And so, they were raised to the honor of Sons of Heaven and enriched with the heritage of the empire. They were succeeded by descendants for ten thousand generations to continue the spread of their righteousness all over the world. And people praise them unto this day, calling them righteous sage-kings. How did Jie, Zhou, You, and Li incur their punishment? Mozi said: In the highest sphere they blasphemed against Heaven, in the middle sphere they blasphemed against the spirits, and in the sphere below they oppressed the people.

Thereupon the will of Heaven proclaimed: "From those whom I love these turn away and hate, and those whom I want to benefit they oppress. Their hate of men is without limit and their oppression of men the most severe." And, so, they were not permitted to finish out their lives, or to survive a single generation. And people condemn them unto this day, calling them wicked kings. How do we know Heaven loves the people? Because it teaches them all. How do we know it teaches them all? Because it claims them all.

Claiming all the people, why will Heaven not love them? Moreover, as I have said, for the murder of one innocent individual there will be one calamity. Who is it that murders the innocent? It is man. Who is it that sends down the calamity? It is Heaven. If Heaven should be thought of as not loving the people, why should it send down calamities for the murder of man by man? So, I know Heaven loves the people.

To obey the will of Heaven is to accept righteousness as the standard. To oppose the will of Heaven is to accept force as the standard. Now what will the standard of righteousness do? Mozi said: He who rules a large state does not attack small states: he who rules a large house does not molest small houses. The strong does not plunder the weak. The honored does not demean the humble. The clever does not deceive the stupid. This is beneficial to Heaven above, beneficial to the spirits in the middle sphere, and beneficial to the people below.

Being beneficial to these three it is beneficial to all. So the most excellent name is attributed to such a man and he is called sage-king. The standard of force is different from this. It is contradictory to this in word and opposed to this in deed like galloping with back to back. Leading a large state, he whose standard is force attacks small states; leading a large house he molests small houses. The strong plunders the weak. The honored disdains the humble. The clever deceives the stupid. This is not beneficial to Heaven above, or to the spirits in the middle sphere, or to the people below. Not being beneficial to these three, it is beneficial to none. So, the most evil name in the world is attributed to him and he is called the wicked king.

Mozi said: The will of Heaven to me is like the compasses to the wheelwright and the square to the carpenter. The wheelwright and the carpenter measure all the square and circular objects with their square and compasses and accept those that fit as correct and reject those that do not fit as incorrect. The writings of the gentlemen of the world of the present day cannot be all loaded (in a cart), and their doctrines cannot be exhaustively enumerated. They endeavor to convince the feudal lords on the one hand and the scholars on the other. But from magnanimity and righteousness they are far off. How do we know? Because I have the most competent standard in the world to measure them with.
Will of Heaven II Mozi said: Those gentlemen in the world who want to practice magnanimity and righteousness cannot but examine the origin of righteousness. Since we want to examine the origin of righteousness, then where does it originate? Mozi said: Righteousness does not originate with the ignorant and humble but with the honorable and wise. How do we know it does not originate with the dull and humble but with the honorable and wise?

For, righteousness is the standard. How do we know righteousness is the standard? For, with righteousness the world will be orderly and without it the world will be disorderly. Therefore, righteousness is known to be the standard. As the dull and the humble cannot make the standard, and only the wise and honorable can, therefore I know righteousness does not come from the ignorant and humble but from the honorable and wise. Now who is honorable and who is wise? Heaven is honorable, Heaven is wise. So, then, righteousness must originate with Heaven.

People in the world would say: "The emperor is more honorable than the feudal lords and that the feudal lords are more honorable than the ministers, we clearly see. But that Heaven is more honorable and wise than the emperor, we do not see." Mozi said: I know Heaven is more honorable and wise than the emperor for a reason: When the emperor practices virtue Heaven rewards, when the emperor does evil Heaven punishes. When there are diseases and calamities, the emperor will purify and bathe himself and prepare clean cakes to do sacrifice and libation to Heaven and the spirits.

Heaven then removes them. But I have not yet heard of Heaven invoking the emperor for blessing. So I know Heaven is more honorable and wise than the emperor. And, this is not all. We also learn of this from the book of the ancient kings which instructs us the vast and ineffable Dao of Heaven. It says: "Brilliant and perspicacious Heaven on High, who enlightens and watches over the earth below!" This shows Heaven is more honorable and wise than the emperor. But is there yet any one more honorable and wise than Heaven? Heaven is really the most honorable and wise. Therefore, righteousness surely comes from Heaven.

And hence Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people, they must not disobey the will of Heaven, the origin of magnanimity and righteousness. Now that we must obey the will of Heaven, what does the will of Heaven desire and what does it abominate? Mozi said: The will of Heaven abominates the large state which attacks small states, the large house which molests small houses, the strong who plunder the weak, the clever who deceive the ignorant, and the honored who disdain the humble – these are what the will of Heaven abominates.

On the other hand, it desires people having energy to work for each other, those knowing the way to teach each other, and those possessing wealth to share with each other. And it desires the superior diligently to attend to government and the subordinates diligently to attend to their work. When the superior attends to the government diligently, the country will be orderly. When the subordinates attend to work diligently, wealth will be abundant. When the country is orderly and wealth is abundant, within the state there will be wherewith to prepare clean cakes to sacrifice to God and the spirits, and in relation with outside countries there will be wherewith to furnish rings, stones, and jades by which to befriend surrounding neighbors.

With the grudges of the feudal lords inactive and fighting on the borders suspended, and the people within provided with food and rest, the emperor and the ministers and the superiors and subordinates will be gracious and loyal respectively, and father and son and elder and younger brothers will be affectionate and filial respectively. Therefore, when the principle of obeying the will of Heaven is understood and widely practiced in the world, then justice and government will be orderly, the multitudes will be harmonious, the country will be wealthy, the supplies will be plenteous, and the people will be warmly clothed and sufficiently fed, peaceful and without worry. Therefore, Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people they must carefully investigate the principle that the will of Heaven is the origin of magnanimity and righteousness.

The rule of Heaven over the world is not unlike the rule of the feudal lord over the state. In ruling the state does the feudal lord desire his ministers and people to work for mutual disadvantage? If leading a large state one attacks small states, if leading a large house one molests small houses – if by doing this one seeks reward and commendation (from the feudal lord) he cannot obtain it. On the contrary, punishment will visit him. Now, the rule of Heaven over the world is not unlike this. If leading a large state one attacks small states, if leading a large house one molests small houses – if by doing this one seeks reward and commendation (from Heaven) he cannot obtain it. On the contrary, punishment will visit him. When man does not do what Heaven desires, but does what Heaven abominates, Heaven will also not do what man desires but do what he abominates.

What man abominates are disease and calamities. Therefore, not to do what Heaven desires but do what it abominates is to lead the multitudes in the world to calamity. Therefore, the ancient sage-kings studied what Heaven and the spirits would bless and avoided what they would curse in order to procure benefits for the world and avoid calamities. Thereupon, Heaven made heat and cold temperate, the four seasons harmonious, the Yin and Yang and rain and dew timely. The five grains are enabled to ripen. And disease, pestilence, and famine did not happen. Therefore, Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the Dao and benefit the people they must be mindful of the principle that the will of Heaven is the origin of magnanimity and righteousness.

In the world those who lack benevolence are unfortunate. If a son does not serve his father, a younger brother does not serve his elder brother, or a subordinate does not serve his superior, then all the gentlemen of the world will call him unfortunate. Now Heaven loves the whole world universally. Everything is prepared for the good of man. Even the tip of a hair is the work of Heaven. Substantial may be said of the benefits that are enjoyed by man. Yet there is no service in return. And they do not even know this to be unmagnanimous and unfortunate. This is why I say the gentlemen understand only trifles and not things of importance.

Moreover, I know Heaven loves men dearly not without reason. Heaven ordered the sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them. Heaven ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to regulate them. Heaven sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the five grains and flax so that the people could use and enjoy them. Heaven established the hills and rivers, ravines and valleys, and arranged many things to minister to man's good or bring him evil. He appointed the dukes and lords to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked, and to gather metal and wood, and to engage in cultivating the five grains and flax to provide for the people's food and clothing.

This has been taking from antiquity to the present. Suppose there is a man who is deeply fond of his son and has used his energy to the limit to work for his benefit. But when the son grows up he returns no love to the father. The gentlemen of the world will all call him unmagnanimous and miserable. Now Heaven loves the whole world universally. Everything is prepared for the good of man. The work of Heaven extends to even the smallest things that are enjoyed by man. Such benefits may indeed be said to be substantial, yet there is no service in return. And they do not even know this to be unmagnanimous. This is why I say the gentlemen of the world understand only trifles but not things of importance.

Yet this does not exhaust my reasons whereby I know Heaven loves man dearly. It is said the murder of an innocent individual will call down a calamity. Who is the innocent? Man is. From whom is the visitation? From Heaven. If Heaven does not love the people dearly, why should Heaven send down a visitation upon the man who murders the innocent? Thus I know Heaven loves man dearly.
This is still not all by which I know Heaven loves man dearly. There are those who love the people and benefit the people and obey the will of Heaven and obtain reward from Heaven. There are also those who hate the people and oppress the people and oppose the will of Heaven and incur punishment from Heaven. Who are those that love the people and benefit the people, obey the will of Heaven and obtain reward from Heaven?

They are the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu. What did Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu do? They engaged themselves in universality and not partiality in love. Loving universally, they did not attack the small states with their large states, they did not molest the small houses with their large houses.

The strong did not plunder the weak, the many did not oppress the few, the clever did not deceive the ignorant, the honored did not disdain the humble. Such a regime was agreeable to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, and to the people below. Being helpful to these three, it was helpful to all. And this was heavenly virtue. The most excellent names in the world were gathered and attributed to them, and they were called magnanimous, righteous, beloved of man and beneficial to the people, obedient to the will of Heaven and rewarded of Heaven. Besides this, it is also recorded on the bamboos cut in metals and stones, and engraved on the dishes and cups to be handed down to posterity.

What is this for? It is to mark out those who loved the people and benefited them, obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward from Heaven. Thus the ode of Huang Yi says: "God said to King Wen, 'I cherish your intelligent virtue. It was not proclaimed with much noise or gesture. It was not modified after the possession of the empire. How instructively and naturally submissive to the scheme of Heaven!'" Because he was obedient to God's scheme, He rewarded him with Yin and honored him to be emperor and enriched him with the empire. And his fame is not forgotten even unto this day. Hence we are enabled to know who are those that loved the people and benefited them, obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward from Heaven.

Now, who are those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven? They are the ancient wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li. What did they do? They were selfish and ungenerous. Being selfish they attacked the small states with their large states, they molested the small houses with their large houses. The strong plundered the weak, the many oppressed the few, the clever deceived the ignorant, the honored disdained the humble.

Such a regime was not helpful to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, or to the people below. Since it was not helpful to these three it was helpful to none. And they were called the enemies of Heaven. The most evil names in the world were gathered and attributed to them, and they were called unmagnanimous, unrighteous, haters of man and oppressors of the people, disobedient to the will of Heaven and punished by Heaven. Besides this, it is also recorded on the bamboos, cut in the metals and stones, and engraved on the plates and cups to be handed down to posterity.

What is this for? It is to mark out those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven. Thus relates the "Great Declaration": "Zhou went beyond the proper limits and became insolent. He would not worship God and pushed away the ancestors and spirits without holding an offering ceremony. And he said: 'Fortune is with me,' and neglected and betrayed his duty. Heaven thereupon deserted him and withdrew its protection." Heaven deserted Zhou and withdrew its support because Zhou opposed the will of Heaven. Hence we are enabled to know who are those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven.

Therefore, the will of Heaven is like the compasses to the wheelwright and the square to the carpenter. The wheelwright tests the circularity of every object in the world with his compasses, saying: "That which satisfies my compasses is circular. That which does not is not circular." Therefore, whether an object is circular or not is all known, because the standard of circularity is all established. The carpenter also tests the squareness of every object in the world with his square, saying: "That which satisfies my square is square; that which does not is not square." Therefore, whether any object is square or not is all known. Why so? Because the standard of squareness is established.

Similarly, with the will of Heaven Mozi will measure the jurisdiction and government of the lords in the empire on the one hand, and the doctrines and teachings of the multitudes in the empire on the other. If some conduct is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven, it is called good conduct; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad conduct.

If a teaching is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven it is called good teaching; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad teaching. And if a government is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven it is called good government; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad government. With this as the model and with this as the standard, whether the lords and the ministers are magnanimous or not can be measured as (easily as) to distinguish black and white. Therefore, Mozi said: If the rulers and the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people they have only to obey the will of Heaven, the origin of magnanimity and righteousness. Obedience to the will of Heaven is the standard of righteousness.

Will of Heaven III Mozi said: What is the reason for the disorder in the world? It is because the gentlemen of the world all understand trifles but not things of importance. How do we know they understand trifles but not things of importance? Because they do not understand the will of Heaven. How do we know they do not understand the will of Heaven? By observing the conduct in the family. If a man commits a misdemeanor in the family he still has other families in which to seek shelter. Yet, father reminds son, the elder brother reminds the younger brother, saying: "Be obedient, be careful in conduct in the family. If one is not obedient and careful in conduct in the family how can he live in the state?"

If a man commits a misdemeanor in the state he still has other states in which to seek shelter. Yet father reminds son and the elder brother reminds the younger brother, saying: "Be obedient. Be careful. One cannot live in a state and be disobedient and careless." Now all men live in the world and under Heaven. When a man sins against Heaven there is nowhere to seek shelter. But people do not think of warning each other. Thus I know that they do not understand things of importance.

And Mozi said: Be obedient. Be careful. Be sure to do what Heaven desires and avoid what Heaven abominates. Now, what does Heaven desire and what does Heaven abominate? Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness. How do we know this? Because righteousness is the standard. How do we know righteousness is the standard? Because with righteousness the world will be orderly; without it the world will be disorderly. So, I know righteousness is the standard.

Now a standard is never given by the subordinate to the superior, it is always to be given by the superior to the subordinate. Hence the common people may not make the standard at will. There are the scholars to give them the standard. The scholars may not make the standard at will. There are the ministers to give them the standard. The ministers may not make the standard at will. There are the feudal lords to give them the standard. The feudal lords may not make the standard at will. There is the high duke to give them the standard. The high duke may not make the standard at will. There is the emperor to give him the standard. The emperor may not make the standard at will. There is Heaven to give him the standard. The gentlemen of the world all understand that the emperor gives the standard to the world but do not understand that Heaven gives the standard to the emperor.

The sages, explaining this, said: "When the emperor has done good, Heaven rewards him. When the emperor has committed wrong, Heaven punishes him. When the emperor is unjust in reward and punishment and not judicious in hearing lawsuits, Heaven visits him with disease and calamities, and frost and dew will be untimely." The emperor will then have to hold an offering ceremony to pray and invoke Heaven for blessing.

I have not yet heard of Heaven praying and invoking the emperor for blessing. So, I can say Heaven is more honorable and wise than the emperor. Therefore, righteousness does not come from the ignorant and humble but from the honorable and wise. Who is honorable? Heaven is honorable. Who is wise? Heaven is wise. And, so, righteousness assuredly comes from Heaven. And the gentlemen of the world who desire to do righteousness therefore must obey the will of Heaven.
What is the will of Heaven that is to be obeyed? It is to love all the people in the world universally.

In all the countries in the world and among all the people who live on grains, the murder of one innocent individual brings down one calamity. Now who is it that murders the innocent? It is man. Who is it that sends down the calamity? It is Heaven. If Heaven really did not love the people, why does Heaven send down calamities for the murder of the innocent? Furthermore, Heaven loves the people dearly, Heaven loves the people inclusively. And this can be known. How do we know Heaven loves the people? Because of the certain reward to the good and punishment to the evil from the virtuous Heaven.

How do we know the virtuous Heaven certainly rewards the good and punishes the evil? I know this from the examples of the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties. Anciently, the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, loved the world universally and proceeded to benefit them. They converted the desires of the people and led them to worship God, hills and rivers, and the spirits. Heaven was pleased because they loved what it loved and benefited what it would benefit, and bestowed rewards upon them, placing them on the throne, crowning them emperor, upholding them as the standard, and calling them sage-kings. Here we have the proof of reward of the good.

Anciently, the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, hated all the world and proceeded to oppress them. They converted the desires of the people and led them to blaspheme against God, hills and rivers, and the spirits. Heaven was offended because they hated those whom Heaven loved and oppressed those whom Heaven would benefit, and Heaven decreed punishments upon them, letting fathers and sons be scattered, their empire be put to an end, their state be lost to them, and capital punishment fall upon them. Thereupon, the multitudes in the world condemned them, the condemnation lasting all through the ten thousand generations, the people calling them wicked kings. Here we have the proof of punishment of the evil. Those gentlemen of the world who desire to do righteousness have only to obey the will of Heaven.

To obey the will of Heaven is to be universal and to oppose the will of Heaven is to be partial in love. According to the doctrine of universality righteousness is the standard; in the doctrine of partiality force is the basis of government. What is it like to have righteousness as the basis of government? The great will not attack the small, the strong will not plunder the weak, the many will not oppress the few, the clever will not deceive the ignorant, the honored will not disdain the humble, the rich will not mock the poor, and the young will not rob the old.

And the states in the empire will not ruin each other with water, fire, poison, and weapons. Such a regime will be beneficial to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, to the people below. Being beneficial to these three it is beneficial to all. This is called the virtue of Heaven; whoever practices this is a sage, magnanimous, gracious, and righteous, loyal, affectionate, and filial, and all such good names in the world will be gathered and attributed to him. Why so? Because such conduct is in accordance with the will of Heaven.

Now, what is it like to have force as the basis of government? The great will attack the small, the strong will plunder the weak, the many will oppress the few, the clever will impose upon the ignorant, the honored will disdain the humble, the rich will mock the poor, and the young will rob the old. And the states in the empire will ruin each other with water, fire, poison, and weapons.

Such a regime will not be helpful to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, or to the people below. Not being helpful to these three, it is not helpful to any. This is called the enemy of Heaven. He who practices this is a bad man, not magnanimous, not gracious, and unrighteous, disloyal, unaffectionate, and unfilial, and all such evil names in the world are gathered and attributed to him. Why so? Because such conduct is in opposition to the will of Heaven.

Hence Mozi established the will of Heaven as his standard, just as the wheelwright uses his compasses and the carpenter uses his square as their standards. The wheelwright with his compasses and the carpenter with his square can judge the circularity and the squareness of objects. Similarly, with the will of Heaven as the standard, Mozi can tell that the gentlemen of the world are far from righteousness.

How do we know the gentlemen of the world are far from righteousness? For, the lords in the large states compete in saying: "Being a big state, if I do not attack the small states, in what way am I big?" Therefore, they mustered their warriors and soldiers, and arranged their boat and chariot forces to attack some innocent state. They broke into its borders, cut down its fields, felled its trees, tore down its inner and outer city walls, and filled up its moats and ditches, burned its ancestral temples.

Of the people the strong were killed, the weak were brought back in chains and ropes. The men were turned into servants and grooms and prisoners. The women were made to be waitresses. Yet, the warring lord did not even know that this is unmagnanimous and unrighteous. He announced to the neighboring lords: "I have attacked a state, defeated an army, and killed so many generals." And the neighboring lords did not know that this is unmagnanimous and unrighteous either, but sent envoys to offer congratulations.

And the warring lords were even doubly ignorant of its being unmagnanimous and unrighteous. They recorded it on the bamboos and kept them in the archives so that the descendants would imitate their royal ancestors, saying: "Why not let us open up the archives and let us learn of the achievements of our ancestors?" Then they would surely not learn: "Such and such is the regime of Wu," but would learn: "I have attacked states, reversed armies, and killed so many of their generals." Now that the warring lords do not understand this to be unmagnanimous and unrighteous, and neighboring lords do not understand this to be unmagnanimous and unrighteous, therefore attacks and assaults go on generation after generation without end.

What do I mean when I say people do not understand things of importance but understand trifles? Supposing someone entered the orchard and garden of another and took the other's peaches and prunes, melon and ginger, he will be punished by the superior when caught and condemned by the public when heard of. Why? Because he did not share the toil but takes the fruit and appropriates what is not his. How much more is this true with him who jumps over another's fence and maltreats the children of the other; of him who digs into another's storehouse and carries away the others gold, jade, and cloth; of him who breaks into another's fold and steals the other's oxen and horses; and of him who kills an innocent person?

In the government of the lords of today all – from the one who kills an innocent person to the one who jumps over another's fence and maltreats the other's children, who digs into another's warehouse and carries away his gold, jade, silk and cloth, who breaks into another's fold and steals his oxen and horses, and who enters another's orchard and garden and takes his peaches and prunes, melons and ginger – all these are punished quite the same as they would be even in the government of Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu.

Now the lords and chiefs in the world all attack and absorb others. This is a thousand and ten thousand times worse than killing one innocent individual, a thousand and ten thousand times worse than jumping over another's fence and maltreating his children or digging into another's storehouse and carrying away his gold, jade, and cloth, a thousand and ten thousand times worse than breaking into another's fold and stealing his oxen and horses, or entering another's orchard and garden and taking his peaches and prunes, melons and ginger.

Yet, they claim it to be righteous. Mozi said: This is meant to confuse us. And is this at all different from confusion in the distinctions between black and white, and sweet and bitter? Suppose a man who upon being shown a little blackness says it is black, but upon being shown much blackness says it is white. He will have to admit that his sight is confused and that he cannot tell the difference between black and white. Suppose a man when served with a little bitter says it is bitter, but when served with much bitter says it is sweet.

Then he will have to admit that his taste is impaired and that he cannot tell the difference between sweet and bitter. In the government of the present lords, the murderer of an individual is imprisoned by the state. But the murderer of many men of the neighboring states is upheld as righteous. How is this different from confusing the distinction between black and white and sweet and bitter?

Therefore, Mozi established the will of Heaven to be the standard. Not only Mozi established the will of Heaven to be the standard, it is also the theme of an ode in the "Da Ya" among the books of the ancient kings: "God said to King Wen, 'I cherish your intelligent virtue. It was not proclaimed with much noise or gesture. It was not modified after the possession of the empire. Instinctively and naturally submissive to the scheme of God.'"

This is to proclaim that King Wen used the will of Heaven as standard and was submissive to God's scheme. If the gentlemen of the world really desire to practice magnanimity and righteousness and be superior men, seeking to attain the way of the sage-kings on the one hand and to procure blessings to the people on the other, they must not neglect to understand the will of Heaven. The will of Heaven is truly the standard of righteousness.

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